Excel PROPER function


The Excel PROPER function capitalizes each word in a given text string. This function is particularly useful for formatting names and addresses or for correcting capitalization issues in text.
  • text: The text string you want to convert, where each word is capitalized.
Return value
A text string with the first letter of each word in uppercase and all other letters in lowercase.

How to use

PROPER is commonly used in data cleaning and preparation, especially when dealing with user-input data, like names, where consistent capitalization is needed. It helps in ensuring a standardized format for text data.


Capitalizing Words in a Text String: To capitalize each word in a text string:
If A1 contains “john doe”, this formula returns “John Doe”.
Combining PROPER with CONCATENATE: Creating title-cased concatenated strings:
					=PROPER(CONCATENATE(D2, " ", E2))
Merges the contents of D2 and E2 and converts them to title case.
PROPER for Uniform Formatting
Ensuring Uniform Text Format in Lists: Using PROPER for consistent text format across a dataset:
Especially useful in scenarios where text data, such as names, come from different sources and need standardization.

Additional Notes

  • PROPER doesn’t affect numbers or punctuation and doesn’t capitalize after an apostrophe.
  • For converting text to uppercase or lowercase, use UPPER or LOWER functions respectively.
  • PROPER can be combined with TRIM to remove extra spaces while capitalizing words.

Related Functions

Excel UPPER function

The Excel UPPER function converts text to uppercase, standardizing text for comparisons or display.

Excel EXACT function

The Excel EXACT function compares two text strings, returning TRUE if they match exactly, essential for case-sensitive comparisons.

Excel PROPER function

The Excel PROPER function capitalizes the first letter of each word in a text string, useful for formatting names and titles.

Excel LOWER function

The Excel LOWER function converts text to all lowercase, standardizing text data for consistent processing.

Content Navigation